Publications

241 Publications

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Journal Article

The Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) is a key feature of the stratosphere that models need to accurately represent in order to simulate surface climate variability and change adequately. For the first time, the Climate Model Intercomparison Project includes in its phase 6 (CMIP6) a set of diagnostics that allow for careful evaluation of the BDC…

Journal Article

We document the configuration and emergent simulation features from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) OM4.0 ocean/sea‐ice model. OM4 serves as the ocean/sea‐ice component for the GFDL climate and Earth system models. It is also used for climate science research and is contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project…

Journal Article

Intermittent transitions between turbulent and nonturbulent states are ubiquitous in the stable atmospheric surface layer (ASL). Data from two field experiments in Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and from direct numerical simulations are used to probe these state transitions so as to (i) identify statistical metrics for the detection of intermittency, (ii)…

Journal Article

Our understanding of the processes that control the burden and budget of tropospheric ozone has changed dramatically over the last 60 years. Models are the key tools used to understand these changes, and these underscore that there are many processes important in controlling the tropospheric ozone budget. In this critical review, we assess our…

Journal Article

Climate models struggle to accurately represent the highly reflective boundary layer clouds overlying the remote and stormy Southern Ocean. We use in situ aircraft observations from the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation and Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) to evaluate Southern Ocean clouds in a cloud‐resolving large‐eddy…

Journal Article

Major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs), vortex formation, and final breakdown dates are key highlight points of the stratospheric polar vortex. These phenomena are relevant for stratosphere‐troposphere coupling, which explains the interest in understanding their future changes. However, up to now, there is not a clear consensus on which…

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Journal Article
 

Preliminary evidence suggests that climate may modulate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Yet it remains unclear whether seasonal and geographic variations in climate can substantially alter the pandemic trajectory, given high susceptibility is a core driver. Here, we use a climate-dependent epidemic model to simulate the SARS-CoV-2…

Journal Article

A key question for infectious disease dynamics is the impact of the climate on future burden. Here, we evaluate the climate drivers of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), an important determinant of disease in young children. We combine a dataset of county-level observations from the US with state-level observations from Mexico, spanning much…

Journal Article

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been employed to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), yet these measures are already having similar effects on other directly transmitted, endemic diseases. Disruptions to the seasonal transmission patterns of these diseases may have consequences for…

Journal Article

The advent of digital computing in the 1950s sparked a revolution in the science of weather and climate. Meteorology, long based on extrapolating patterns in space and time, gave way to computational methods in a decade of advances in numerical weather forecasting. Those same methods also gave rise to computational climate science, studying…

Journal Article

We live, it is said, in the age of “data science”. Machine learning (ML) from data astonishes us with its advances, such as autonomous vehicles and translation tools, and also worries us with its ability to monitor and interpret human faces, gestures and behaviors. In science, we are witnessing a new explosion of literature around machine…

Journal Article

Traditional general circulation models, or GCMs—that is, three-dimensional dynamical models with unresolved terms represented in equations with tunable parameters—have been a mainstay of climate research for several decades, and some of the pioneering studies have recently been recognized by a Nobel prize in Physics. Yet, there is considerable…

Journal Article

Theory and observations suggest that low frequency variation in marine plankton populations, or red noise, may arise through cumulative integration of white noise atmospheric forcing by the ocean and its amplification within food webs. Here, we revisit evidence for the integration of stochastic atmospheric variations by comparing the power…

Journal Article

Geoscience is plagued with structural and systemic barriers that prevent people of historically excluded groups from fully participating in, contributing to, and accruing the benefits of geosciences. A change in the culture of our learning and working environments is required to dismantle barriers and promote belonging, accessibility, justice,…

Journal Article

The hurricane project at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) was established in 1970. By the mid-1970s pioneering research had led to the development of a new hurricane model. As the reputation of the model grew, GFDL was approached in 1986 by the director of the National…

Journal Article

Bubbles bursting at the ocean surface are an important source of sea-spray aerosol. Indeed, a bubble bursting at the surface of a liquid produces a jet that then breaks up leading to several droplets. Here we simulate the bursting of a single bubble by numerical simulation of the axisymmetric two-phases air-water Navier-Stokes equations in the…

Journal Article

Bubbles bursting at the ocean surface are an important source of sea-spray aerosol. We describe jet drop production, from ensembles of high fidelity numerical simulations of bubble bursting, validated against experimental results. The number of jet drops, their size, and velocity are controlled by the ratio of the bubble size, Rb, and the visco…

Journal Article

When a bubble bursts at the surface of a liquid, it creates a jet that may break up and produce jet droplets. This phenomenon has motivated numerous studies due to its multiple applications, from bubbles in a glass of champagne to ocean/atmosphere interactions. We simulate the bursting of a single bubble by direct numerical simulations of the…

Journal Article

The authors analyze the global statistics of tropical cyclones undergoing extratropical transition (ET) in the Forecast‐oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5 with Flux Adjustment (FLOR‐FA). The cyclone phase space (CPS) is used to diagnose ET. A simulation of the recent historical climate is analyzed and compared with data from the…

Journal Article

In the tropics, the tropopause is exceptionally cold and air entering the stratosphere is dehydrated down to a few parts per million leading to the extreme dryness of Earth’s stratosphere. Deep convection typically detrains a few kilometers below the tropopause, but the few storms that may reach up to the tropopause could have an outsize effect…

Journal Article

The ability of marine microbes to navigate toward chemical hotspots can determine their nutrient uptake and has the potential to affect the cycling of elements in the ocean. The link between bacterial navigation and nutrient cycling highlights the need to understand how chemotaxis functions in the context of marine microenvironments. Chemotaxis…

Journal Article

Warming-driven expansion of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the equatorial Pacificwould bring very low oxygen waters closer to the ocean surface and possibly impact global carbon/nutrientcycles and local ecosystems. Global coarse Earth System Models(ESMs) show, however, disparate trendsthat poorly constrain these future changes in the upper…

Journal Article

Compared to the Arctic, seasonal predictions of Antarctic sea ice have received relatively little attention. In this work, we utilize three coupled dynamical prediction systems developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to assess the seasonal prediction skill and predictability of Antarctic sea ice. These systems, based on the FLOR,…

Journal Article

Research over the past decade has demonstrated that dynamical forecast systems can skillfully predict Pan-Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) on the seasonal timescale; however, there have been fewer assessments of prediction skill on user-relevant spatial scales. In this work, we evaluate regional Arctic SIE predictions made with the FLOR and SPEAR…

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Journal Article

Tropical forests are a key determinant of the functioning of the Earth system, but remain a major source of uncertainty in carbon cycle models and climate change projections. In this study, we present an updated land model (LM3PPA‐TV) to improve the representation of tropical forest structure and dynamics in Earth system models (ESMs). The…

Journal Article

We examine polarimetric rainfall estimates of extreme rainfall through intercomparisons of radar rainfall estimates with rainfall observations from a dense network of rain gauges in Kansas City. The setting provides unique capabilities for examining range dependence in polarimetric rainfall estimates due to the overlapping coverage of the…

Journal Article

Over the past decade, there has been appreciable progress towards modeling the water, energy, and carbon cycles at field scales (10–100 m) over continental to global extents in Earth system models (ESMs). One such approach, named HydroBlocks, accomplishes this task while maintaining computational efficiency via Hydrologic Response Units(HRUs),…

Journal Article

A satellite-based climatology is presented of 9607 mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that occurred over the central and southeastern United States from 1996-2017. This climatology is constructed with a fully automated algorithm based on their cold cloud shields, as observed from infrared images taken by GOES-East satellites. The geographical,…

Journal Article

The rapidly increasing computing powers allow global atmospheric simulations with aggressively high resolutions, challenging traditional model design principles. This paper presents a Low Mach number Approximate Riemann Solver (LMARS) based unstaggered finite‐volume model for solving the shallow‐water equations on arbitrary gnomonic cubed…

Journal Article

Most climate models neglect cloud longwave (LW) scattering because scattering is considered negligible compared to strong LW absorption by clouds and greenhouse gases. While this rationale is valid for simulating extrapolar regions, it is questionable for the polar regions, where the atmosphere is dry and hence has weak absorption, and ice…

Journal Article

We use the fvGFS model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of the upcoming United States Next‐Generation Global Prediction System for hurricane prediction. The fvGFS retrospective forecasts initialized with the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data showed much‐improved…

Journal Article

A new global model using the GFDL nonhydrostatic Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (FV3) coupled to physical parameterizations from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) was built at GFDL, named fvGFS. The modern dynamical core, FV3, has been selected for the National Oceanic and…

Journal Article

Intense convection (updrafts exceeding 10 m s−1) plays an essential role in severe weather and Earth's energy balance. Despite its importance, how the global pattern of intense convection changes in response to warmed climates remains unclear, as simulations from traditional climate models are too coarse to simulate intense convection…

Journal Article

Container technology provides a pathway to facilitate easy access to unified modeling systems and opens opportunities for collaborative model development and interactive learning. In this paper, we present the implementation of software containers for the System for High‐resolution prediction on Earth‐to‐Local Domains (SHiELD)…

Journal Article

Aerosols are postulated to alter moist convection by increasing cloud droplet number concentration (Nd). Cloud‐resolving model simulations of radiative‐convective equilibrium show that higher Nd leads to stronger convective mass flux, seemingly in line with a hypothesis that links the convective invigoration to delayed rain formation allowing…

Journal Article

In this paper, it is shown that westward-propagating monsoon-low-pressure-system-like disturbances in the South Asian monsoon region can be simulated in an idealized moist general circulation model through the addition of a simplified parameterization of land. Land is parameterized as having one-tenth the heat capacity of the surrounding slab…

Journal Article

The once-contiguous Ellesmere Ice Shelf, first reported in writing by European explorers in 1876, and now almost completely disintegrated, has rolling, wave-like surface topography, the origin of which we investigate using a viscous buckling instability analysis. We show that rolls can develop during a winter season (~ 100 d) if sea-ice…

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Journal Article

The mechanical interactions between ice floes in the polar sea-ice packs play an important role in the state and predictability of the sea-ice cover. We use a Lagrangian-based numerical model to investigate such floe-floe interactions. Our simulations show that elastic and reversible deformation offers significant resistance to compression…

Journal Article

This is an ocean motivated study which investigates the impacts of sinusoidal bottom topography on baroclinic instability of zonal vertically sheared flows in the two-layer quasigeostrophic model. The corresponding linear stability problem is solved by assuming Fourier-mode solutions in both the zonal and meridional directions. In the presence…

Journal Article

Breaking waves modulate the transfer of energy, momentum, and mass between the ocean and atmosphere, controlling processes critical to the climate system, from gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen to the generation of sea spray aerosols that can be transported in the atmosphere and serve as cloud condensation nuclei. The smallest…

Journal Article

Estimates of ground-level ozone concentrations are necessary to determine the human health burden of ozone. To support the Global Burden of Disease Study, we produce yearly fine resolution global surface ozone estimates from 1990 to 2017 through a data fusion of observations and models. As ozone observations are sparse in many populated regions…

Journal Article

We document the development and simulation characteristics of the next generation modeling system for seasonal to decadal prediction and projection at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). SPEAR (Seamless System for Prediction and EArth System Research) is built from component models recently developed at GFDL ‐ the AM4 atmosphere…

Journal Article

Efforts to manage living marine resources (LMRs) under climate change need projections of future ocean conditions, yet most global climate models (GCMs) poorly represent critical coastal habitats. GCM utility for LMR applications will increase with higher spatial resolution but obstacles including computational and data storage costs, obstinate…

Journal Article

We describe the baseline coupled model configuration and simulation characteristics of GFDL's Earth System Model Version 4.1 (ESM4.1), which builds on component and coupled model developments at GFDL over 2013–2018 for coupled carbon‐chemistry‐climate simulation contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. In…

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Journal Article

Mixed-phase clouds are frequently observed in the atmosphere. Here we present a parameterization for ice crystal concentration and ice nucleation rate based on parcel model simulations for mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds, as a complement to a previous parameterization for stratus clouds. The parcel model uses a singular (time independent)…

Journal Article

Bubble-mediated gas exchange in turbulent flow is critical in bubble column chemical reactors as well as for ocean-atmosphere gas exchange related to air entrained by breaking waves. Understanding the transfer rate from a single bubble in turbulence at large Péclet numbers (defined as the ratio between the rate of advection and diffusion of gas…

Journal Article

This paper examines the physical controls of extratropical humidity and clouds by isolating the effects of cloud physics factors in an idealized model. The Held–Suarez dynamical core is used with the addition of passive water vapor and cloud tracers, allowing cloud processes to be explored cleanly. Separate saturation adjustment and full cloud…

Journal Article

A negative shortwave cloud feedback associated with higher extratropical liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds is a common feature of global warming simulations, and multiple mechanisms have been hypothesized. A set of process-level experiments performed with an idealized global climate model (a dynamical core with passive water and cloud…

Journal Article

Because the forcings to which Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) models were subjected were poorly quantified, recent efforts from the Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) have focused on developing and testing models with exacting benchmarks. Here, we focus on aerosol forcing to understand if for a given…

Journal Article

The Brewer-Dobson circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is investigated in simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 6. We examine vertical mass fluxes, age of stratospheric air, and the transformed Eulerian mean stream function and find that the modeled annual-mean Brewer-Dobson circulation during the…